These findings reflect the challenges the U. They did, however, have some special features as inhabitants of the Mediterranean region and the southwestern part of Europe.
After the events at Cajamarca, the Spaniards faced a certain amount of fighting as they advanced to Cuzco, especially from adherents of Atahuallpa, but his enemies, who seem to have been the majority on the ground, tended to acquiesce for the time being.
It employed only a relatively small proportion of the total Spanish population. A complex set of practices had grown up for the treatment of the women and children involved in informal unions.
Santo Domingofounded on the southeastern coast of Hispaniola inbecame a real city, with a rash of ephemeral secondary Spanish cities spread over the island.
In most regions placer gold was soon exhausted, though Mexico relied on it for a generation, and it eventually became the principal export of New Granada present-day Colombia. Ethnic groups[ edit ] Amerindians. For many decades the Portuguese had been exploring along the coast of Africa, bringing back many Africans as slaves.
The fact of the recognition of a racial continuum in Hispanic American sic does not mean that there wasn't discrimination, which there was, or that there wasn't an obsession with race, or 'castes', as they were sometimes called. The ideology of Mestizaje came from the long tradition of tolerance of racial mixing that existed in the Spanish colonies.
Thus, for example, of the approximately Of these immigrants, Italians formed the largest group, and next were Spaniards and Portuguese.
Silver mining was the successor, and it became the main export asset of the central areas until the time of independence.
It promoted the use of planned miscegenation as a eugenic strategy designed to improve the overall quality of the population by multiplying white genetic material to the entire population. In addition, there were a number of permanent indigenous workers, some of whom possessed skills inherited from the preconquest period, and, in an industry as technical as mining, this group was constantly growing.
Second-rank merchants, however, without direct ties to Sevilla, were more likely to develop local roots. Only in hot, low-lying areas, such as the Peruvian and Mexican coastal regions, however, were losses as disastrous as those of the Caribbean islands. During the war the State Department endorsed all-American oil concessions, but, in accordance with the principle of reciprocity, Hughes instructed his Latin-American ambassadors in to respect foreign interests.
As a result, the indigenous peoples, once in contact, were very vulnerable to the outsiders. Also, manumission was possible, and communities of freed Africans, many of them racially mixed, existed on the edges of society.
Very soon true silver mining experts began not only to operate the mines but to become the owners as well. The most famous of these are the Inca empire in the Andean region and what is often called the Aztec empire in Mexico although the word Aztec was little known at the time. The Caribbean phase The islands of the Caribbean would soon become a backwater, but during the first years of Spanish occupation they were the arena of the development of many practices and structures that would long be central to Spanish-American life.
They were found above all in relatively temperate forested areas. Four large-scale civil wars among the Spaniards rocked the country in the time between the late s and early s. Casta During the Spanish colonial periodSpaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, which was used for social control and which also determined a person's rights in society.
By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje.
Types of Western Hemisphere societies The Europeans were sedentary, living in nations and districts with distinct borders, relying on a permanent intensive agriculture to sustain many people in a variety of pursuits who lived in both urban and rural communities.
In some ways the centre was more a line than a region—that is, a line from Atlantic port to capital to mines, along which European people and products flowed in and silver flowed out. An encomendero, not himself physically involved, would likely supply the finances and take most of the profit.
In other words, the form would ask people to identify their race or origin and would include Hispanic along with black, white, Asian, American Indian and Pacific Islander.
The size and benefits of the encomienda thus depended on the local indigenous situation: Rather than counting only from father to son to grandson, the Iberians kept track of a network of connections, as many made through the female line as the male.
Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. Yet force was involved, and the Spaniards developed many of the techniques they would use on the mainland. To organize the diversity, the Spaniards resorted to an ethnic hierarchy.
This distinctive view of race is consistent across demographic subgroups of Latino adults. With so little incentive for the Europeans to subdue them, so few points of contact between their societies, and such great ability and will on the part of the nonsedentary peoples to resist conquest, the main patterns between the two groups became avoidance and long-continuing conflict.
Mulattoes and Indian half-breeds were thereby excluded from the white community. To increase their productivity, they bought African slaves, whom they trained in their own trades; the Africans in turn helped train the larger number of Indian apprentices to be found in many shops.
Few clerics of any kind were with the actual conquering expeditions, but soon parties of friars arrived.Throughout Latin America, race and ethnicity continue to be among the most important determinants of access to opportunity and economic advancement.
Indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples in Latin America represent 40 percent of the total population—a sizeable share—yet they remain a disproportionate segment of the poorest of the poor. Across Latin America, these are the two terms most commonly used to describe people of mixed-race background.
For example, mestizos represent a racial majority in Mexico, most of Central America and the Andean countries of South America. 1. Discuss the racial composition (racial groups) of colonial Latin America In order to discuss the racial composition of Colonial Latin America, we must first examine the three civilizations that were present when the Europeans reached Latin America.
Racial and ethnic discrimination is common in Latin America where socio-economic status generally correlates with perceived whiteness, and indigenous status and perceived African ancestry is generally correlated with poverty and lack of.
Languages of Latin America. Because of the varied ethnic backgrounds of the population, there are many languages spoken in Latin America. Spanish is the predominant language in most countries, but. This theme of racial mixing was the common throughout Latin America except for Brazil. Brazil had little indigenous population, mainly semi-nomadic or cannibalistic.
This meant there had to be more settlers to move to the New World and more slaves for the production of resources.Download